We summarize some of the conclusions drawn from the study:
* Increased support for violence against the government. Independence has gone from a pacifist attitude to supporting political violence. At the beginning of the study, the majority of independentists rejected violence, while now a majority accepts "a certain degree" of violence against the police.
* Polarization of identities. Initially the Catalan and Spanish identities overlapped in large numbers of Catalans who had no problem in assuming both. Now the moderates are moving to extremes and many have considered themselves "only Catalan" or "only Spanish".
* Antieuropeism. Initially the nationalists declared themselves pro-European and trusted that the European institutions endorse their claims or at least "mediate" between them and the government of Spain. Currently, the more independent an individual is, the less European he feels, probably because the European Union, within the legal framework, has treated the matter as an internal problem of Spain, rather than supporting them.
* Exclusion. In 2014, independentists used immigrants as an example to show that their movement was inclusive. However, now the nationalists have restricted their definition of who is Catalan, with the idea that Catalan is "in their blood". The newspaper mentions that the more independentist an individual is, the more exclusionary he becomes, and it affirms that the independentists have become more "tribal", with a narrower sense of identity.
In addition to detailing the points presented, the article mentions the sentences of "procés" as an important turning point in these changes in the nationalist character. It points to the lack of a solution to the "conflict" by the government of Spain and the European Union, and states that Catalan nationalism "has damaged democracy in Spain".
According to the journalists who sign the article, other consequences of the radicalization of nationalism are: the fragmentation of the independence parties, the rise of the far right and the polarization that makes the parties have difficulty forming coalitions despite the attempts of the more centrists parties.